The value of ecosystems to human wellbeing has long been recognized. People’s lives are intrinsically linked and dependent on their ecosystem, as it provides many life-sustaining benefi ts to them. Recently, ecosystem services have been widely discussed to describe the diff erent benefi ts people derive from them, both directly and indirectly.
Living in a healthy ecosystem has many tangible benefi ts. Every person relies on ecosystem services in some way, but the degree of dependence varies from place to place and person to person. Those communities whose livelihoods and resilience are based on primary sector of the economy such as farming, fi shing, and forestry heavily depend on ecosystems. The ecosystem services are capable of providing naturebased solutions for resilience to shocks and stresses. In areas aff ected or sensitive to disasters or climate variabilities, such contributions are prominent. On the one hand, these nature-based solutions are capable of dealing with emergency situations while at the same time they help in reviving and sustain life support systems. However, in recent times, human actions have adversely aff ected ecosystem services, making communities more vulnerable to weather- and climate-induced disasters. Many parts of the world have been facing climate and disaster risks due to poorly planned development activities that neglect natural ecosystems and their contribution to livelihood and resilience.
Kosi river basin area was once rich with biodiversity and ecosystem services. The case study documents ecosystem services and naturebased solutions that the Kosi basin provided, specifi cally to the villages that are close to Kosi embankments. The study conducted in fi ve villages of Nirmali Block in Supaul District provides an account of how the local ecosystem services provided protection against natural hazards and were able to cope with shocks and stresses arising from climate variability, thus providing socio-economic resilience to the local population.