Covering an area of 2,420 sq km, Supaul district in Bihar is situated adjacent to the flood plain terai region of Nepal. The district is a part of the Kosi division and the Kosi river flows through the western part of the district. One of the development blocks of the district is Nirmali block, situated upstream of the Kosi bridge on NH-57.
Majority of the people living in Kosi basin in Bihar depend upon agriculture for their livelihoods, of which majority of them belong to small and marginal category. After agriculture, livestock is another potential source of livelihood for the local communities. During the last two to three decades, agriculture in Kosi region has been severely affected due to the climatic changes. Five of the project villages in Nirmali block experienced significant changes in agriculture and livelihood patterns due to climate change.
According to the analysis of the climate trends of the district, rainfall and temperature profiles have significantly changed over the last two to three decades. Below is the summary of the trend in precipitation and temperature indices of the district.